Today's high-speed central processing units (CPUs) provide extremely high performance while meeting the requirements of their power supply specifications. Higher speed CPUs require a lower core voltage but require more power, so the power supply circuit must provide a very large current. A better solution to the core voltage supply problem has become a great challenge for voltage converter modules and PC motherboard designers.
2 Intel related specifications on the CPU core voltage requirements
Intel's early CPUs, such as PenTIum 2 and PenTIum 3, follow Intel's VRM (Voltage Regula TIon Module) 8.1 to 8.4 power supply specifications, with a maximum output current of 22.6A. The Pcntium 3 and Celeron CPUs at the core of TualaTIn began to introduce the VRM 8.5 standard, and its maximum output current value was 28A. Intel introduced VRM9 when it introduced the Willamette and NorthWood core Pentium 4. O standard, which specifies a maximum output current of 70A. With the introduction of the Prescott core Pentium 4, the VRM specification has also been updated to VRD (Voltage Regulator Down) 10. O, the current maximum also reached 91A. In order to match the higher frequency and higher performance CPU, in April 2005, Intel introduced the VRDl0.1 specification, which detailed the specification of the power supply of the CPU of the LGA775 Socket. This is the power requirement for the desktop CPU. Very high power specifications, the requirements are listed below:
(1) The continuous load current (ICCTDC) is 115A;
(2) The maximum output current (ICCMAX) is 125A;
(3) The output voltage value is specified by VID[5:0], and the range is O. 837 5~1.6V. Stepping at 0.0125V;
(4) load line slope (load line slope) impedance R0 is 1.00mÎ©;
(5) The maximum voltage ripple VRIPPLE is Â±5mV;
(6) The maximum voltage upper peak VOS_MAX is 50mv, and its longest duration is 25Î¼s.
Here are just a few of the most important provisions. There are many other things in the VRDl0.1 specification. Due to space limitations, this mask is no longer listed. It can be seen from the above that the high-performance CPU has more and more demand for the output power consumption of the power supply circuit, and the output power consumption is required to be as high as 170 W or more in the VRD 10.1. At the same time, the requirements for voltage accuracy and stability have reached a very demanding level, and a very stable and accurate load line slope is maintained in the case of high power and large current. In VRD10. Before O, the CPU core voltage supply circuit is generally controlled by three-phase or two-phase PWM. This method can not meet the high current demand of 100A or above. The design of this paper uses 4-phase PWM control to meet the stringent requirements of VRDl0.1, which is described in detail below.
3 high power CPU core voltage circuit design
Figure 1 shows the high-power CPU core voltage supply circuit that meets the requirements of VRD101 proposed in this paper. It uses Fairchild's FAN50192-4 phase PWM power controller as a control chip. The FAN5019 controls four Fairchild FAN5009 MOSFET drivers. The FAN5009 drives the high-side and low-side M0SFETs connected to the switch, and then supplies the VCCCORE through the charging and discharging of the inductor and the capacitor device.
The FAN5019 is a multiphase (up to 4-phase) DC/DC controller designed to generate high current, low voltage CPU core voltages. In this design, it drives four PWM channels simultaneously in parallel, and reduces the input and output ripple currents by means of crossbar switches, which can reduce peripheral components and reduce cost. FAN5019 uses temperature compensation inductor current detection technology to meet the load line technical requirements of the VRDl0.1 rule. The general PWM controller uses RDS (ON) or sense resistor to measure current and set the load line. fulfil requirements. As shown in Figure 1, the VID[5:0] input of FAN5019 is exactly the same as the VRD10.1 specification. It can control the output voltage of 0.8375~1.600V in 12.5mV step, and it also has short circuit protection. Technology with increased current limit and overvoltage protection to increase safety and reliability. The FAN5019 sends a PWM control signal to each FAN5009, and the FAN5009 converts it to an internal circuit that correctly drives the high-side and low-side MOSFETs. The FAN5009 can drive both high-side and low-side MOSFETs with a built-in startup diode, eliminating the need to add diodes to the peripheral circuitry.
The input voltage VIN of this design is 12V, the rated output voltage VVID is 1.500V, and the duty ratio D (Duty Cycle) is O. 125, the load line slope impedance R0 is 1. OmÎ©, ICCTDC is greater than 115A, ICCMAX is 125A, maximum output power consumption is 172.5W, maximum voltage ripple VRRIPLE is Â±5mV, and the switching frequency fSW of each phase is set to 228kHz. The specific parameters of the peripheral components are listed in Table 1.
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